Manual Testing Interview Questions

Prepare for your software testing interviews from our comprehensive list of over 100 manual testing interview questions with answers. These interview questions are designed for both freshers and experienced. We will start with fairly simple questions and move to the more advanced level as the post progresses.

Ques.1. What is Software Testing?
Ans. Software testing is the process of evaluating a system to check if it satisfies its business requirements. It measures the overall quality of the system in terms of attributes like correctness, completeness, usability, performance etc. Basically, it is used for ensuring the quality of software to the stakeholders of the application.

Ques.2. Why is testing required?
Ans. We need software testing for following reasons-

  1. Testing provides an assurance to the stakeholders that product works as intended.
  2. Avoidable defects leaked to the end user/customer without proper testing adds bad reputation to the development company.
  3. Defects detected earlier phase of SDLC results into lesser cost and resource utilization of correction.
  4. Saves development time by detecting issues in earlier phase of development.
  5. Testing team adds another dimension to the software development by providing a different view point to the product development process.

Ques.3. When should we stop testing?
Ans. Testing (both manual and automated) can be stopped when one or more of the following conditions are met-

  1. After test case execution - Testing phase can be stopped when one complete cycle of test cases is executed after the last known bug fix with agreed upon value of pass-percentage.
  2. Once the testing deadline is met - Testing can be stopped after deadlines get met with no high priority issues left in system.
  3. Based on Mean Time Between failure (MTBF)- MTBF is the time interval between two inherent failures. Based on stakeholders decisions, if the MTBF is quite large one can stop the testing phase.
  4. Based on code coverage value - Testing phase can be stopped when the automated code coverage reaches a specific threshold value with sufficient pass-percentage and no critical bug.

Ques.4. What is Quality Assurance?
Ans. Quality assurance is a process driven approach which checks if the process of developing the product is correct and conforming to all the standards. It is considered as a preventive measure as it identifies the weakness in the process to build a software. It involves activities like document review, test cases review, walk-throughs, inspection etc.

Ques.5. What is Quality Control?
Ans. Quality control is product driven approach which checks that the developed product conforms to all the specified requirements. It is considered as a corrective measure as it tests the built product to find the defects. It involves different types of testing like functional testing, performance testing, usability testing etc.

Ques.6. What is the difference between Verification and Validation?
Ans. Following are the major differences between verification and validation-

1. Verification is the process of evaluating the artifacts as well as the process of software development in order to ensure that the product being developed will comply to the standards. Validation is the process of validating that the developed software product conforms to the specified business requirements.
2. It is static process of analyzing the documents and not the actual end product. It involves dynamic testing of software product by running it.
3. Verification is a process oriented approach. Validation is a product oriented approach.
4. Answers the question - "Are we building the product right?" Answers the question - "Are we building the right product?"
5. Errors found during verification require lesser cost/resources to get fixed as compared to be found during validation phase. Errors found during validation require more cost/resources. Later the error is discovered higher is the cost to fix it.

Ques.7. What is SDLC?
Ans. SDLC stands for Software Development Life Cycle. It refers to all the activities performed during software development - requirement gathering, requirement analysis, designing, coding or implementation, testing, deployment and maintenance.

software development lifecycle

Ques.8. Explain STLC - Software Testing life cycle.
Ans. Software testing life cycle refers to all the activities performed during testing of a software product. The phases include-

  • Requirement analyses and validation - In this phase the requirements documents are analysed and validated and scope of testing is defined.
  • Test planning - In this phase test plan strategy is defined, estimation of test effort is defined along with automation strategy and tool selection is done.
  • Test Design and analysis - In this phase test cases are designed, test data is prepared and automation scripts are implemented.
  • Test environment setup - A test environment closely simulating the real world environment is prepared.
  • Test execution - The test cases are prepared, bugs are reported and retested once resolved.
  • Test closure and reporting - A test closure report is prepared having the final test results summary, learning and test metrics.

Ques.9. What are the different types of testing?
Testing can broadly be defined into two types-

  • Functional testing - Functional testing involves validating the functional specifications of the system.
  • Non Functional testing - Non functional testing is a type of testing that involves testing of non-functional requirements of the system such as performance, scalability, security, endurance, portability etc.

Going by the way the testing is done, it can be categorized as-

  • Black box testing - In black box testing, the tester need not have any knowledge of the internal architecture or implementation of the system. The tester interact with the system through the interface providing input and validating the received output.
  • White box testing - In white box testing, the tester analyses the internal architecture of the system as well as the quality of source code on different parameters like code optimization, code coverage, reusability etc.
  • Gray box testing - In gray box testing, the tester has partial access to the internal architecture of the system e.g. the tester may have access to the design documents or database structure. This information helps tester to test the application better.

Ques.10. What is a test bed?
Ans. A test bed is a test environment used for testing an application. A test bed configuration can consist of the hardware and software requirement of the application under test including - operating system, hardware configurations, software configurations, tomcat, database etc.

Ques.11. What is a test plan?
Ans. A test plan is a formal document describing the scope of testing, the approach to be used, resources required and time estimate of carrying out the testing process. It is derived from the requirement documents(Software Requirement Specifications).

Ques.12. What is a test scenario?
Ans. A test scenario is derived from a use case. It is used for end end to end testing of a feature of an application. A single test scenario can cater multiple test cases. The scenario testing is particularly useful when there is time constraint while testing.

Ques.13. What is a test case?
Ans. A test case is used to test the conformance of an application with its requirement specifications. It is a set of conditions with pre-requisites, input values and expected results in a documented form.

Ques.14. What are some attributes of a test case?
Ans. A test case can have following attributes-

  1. TestCaseId - A unique identifier of the test case.
  2. Test Summary - One liner summary of the test case.
  3. Description - Detailed description of the test case.
  4. Prerequisite or pre-condition - A set of prerequisites that must be followed before executing the test steps.
  5. Test Steps - Detailed steps for performing the test case.
  6. Expected result - The expected result in order to pass the test.
  7. Actual result - The actual result after executing the test steps.
  8. Test Result - Pass/Fail status of the test execution.
  9. Automation Status - Identifier of automation - whether the application is automated or not.
  10. Date - The test execution date.
  11. Executed by - Name of the person executing the test case.

Ques.15. What is a test script?
Ans. A test script is an automated test case written in any programming or scripting language. These are basically a set of instructions to evaluate the functioning of an application.

Ques.16. What is a bug?
Ans. A bug is a fault in a software product detected at the time of testing, causing it to function in an unanticipated manner.

Ques.17. What is a defect?
Ans. A defect is non-conformance with the requirement of the product detected in production (after the product goes live).

Ques.18. What are some defect reporting attributes?
Ans. Some of the attributes of a Defect report are-

  • DefectId - A unique identifier of the defect.
  • Defect Summary - A one line summary of the defect, more like a defect title.
  • Defect Description - A detailed description of the defect.
  • Steps to reproduce - The steps to reproduce the defect.
  • Expected Result - The expected behavior from which the application is deviating because of the defect.
  • Actual Result- The current erroneous state of the application w.r.t. the defect.
  • Defect Severity - Based on the criticality of the defect, this field can be set to minor, medium, major or show stopper.
  • Priority - Based on the urgency of the defect, this field can be set on a scale of P0 to P3.

Ques.19. What are some of the bug or defect management tools?
Ans. Some of the most widely used Defect Management tools are - Jira, Bugzilla, Redmine, Mantis, Quality Center etc.

Ques.20. What is defect density?
Ans. Defect density is the measure of density of the defects in the system. It can be calculated by dividing number of defect identified by the total number of line of code(or methods or classes) in the application or program.

Ques.21. What is defect priority?
Ans. A defect priority is the urgency of the fixing the defect. Normally the defect priority is set on a scale of P0 to P3 with P0 defect having the most urgency to fix.

Ques.22. What is defect severity?
Ans. Defect severity is the severity of the defect impacting the functionality. Based on the organisation, we can have different levels of defect severity ranging from minor to critical or show stopper.

Ques.23. Give an example of Low priority-Low severity, Low priority-High severity, High priority-Low severity, High priority-High severity defects.

  1. Low priority-Low severity - A spelling mistake in a page not frequently navigated by users.
  2. Low priority-High severity - Application crashing in some very corner case.
  3. High priority-Low severity - Slight change in logo color or spelling mistake in company name.
  4. High priority-High severity - Issue with login functionality.

Ques.24. What is a blocker?
Ans. A blocker is a bug of high priority and high severity. It prevents or blocks testing of some other major portion of the application as well.

Ques.25. What is a critical bug?
Ans. A critical bug is a bug that impacts a major functionality of the application and the application cannot be delivered without fixing the bug. It is different from blocker bug as it doesn't affect or blocks the testing of other part of the application.