Working of Computer

Working of Computer

Last updated on

In this article, we will discuss the working of computers. A computer is a device that processes a large amount of data and performs various calculations. Computer refers to the hardware, software, and firmware used to process data. Computers process data or information using a combination of hardware and software. 

Computers are universal in today’s world, they are used in homes, offices, and other backgrounds for a variety of tasks, from writing records and browsing the web to performing difficult scientific computations and executing simulations. But how do these machines work? In this article, we will study the essential elements and processes that make up a computer and how they work together to carry out various tasks.


A computer is an electronic device that receives input, processes that input, and produces output. The input can take many forms, such as keystrokes on a keyboard, clicks on a mouse, or signals from sensors like cameras or microphones. The computer then processes this input using a central processing unit (CPU) and other components like memory, storage, and input/output devices and produces output in the form of text, images, sound, or other media.

Components of Computer

Let’s discuss the main components of computers which help in the working of computer:

  • CPU: The central processing unit, or CPU, is often referred to as the “brain” of the computer. It is responsible for executing instructions and carrying out calculations. The CPU consists of one or more processing cores, each of which can execute multiple instructions simultaneously, using a combination of arithmetic logic units (ALUs) and control units.
  • Memory: Memory, also known as RAM (random access memory), is where the computer stores data and instructions while they are being processed. Unlike storage devices like hard drives, which store data permanently, memory is volatile, meaning its contents are lost when the computer is turned off.
  • Storage: Storage devices like hard drives and solid-state drives (SSDs) are used to store data permanently. Unlike memory, which is volatile, data stored on a storage device remains there even when the computer is turned off.
  • Input/output devices: Input/output devices, or I/O devices, interact with the computer and receive or produce output. I/O devices include keyboards, mice, displays, speakers, and printers.

You can also take a look at our detailed article about the components of computers.

Working Process of Computer

The working process of a computer can be divided into three main stages: input, processing, and output. Here we have discussed each stage:

  • Input: The input stage is the first step in the working process of a computer. This is where data and instructions are entered into the computer for processing. Input devices such as keyboards, mice, scanners, and microphones are used to enter data, while software applications are used to provide instructions to the computer. The input data is then converted into a binary code that the computer can understand and process.
  • Processing: The processing stage is where the computer performs all the necessary computations and manipulations on the input data. This stage involves using the central processing unit (CPU) and other hardware components such as memory and storage. The CPU executes instructions and performs calculations, while memory and storage are used to temporarily or permanently store data and programs.
  • Output: The output stage is the final step in the working process of a computer. This is where the processed data is presented to the user in a human-readable form. Output devices such as monitors, printers, and speakers are used to display, print, or play back the results of the processing stage.

Overall, the working process of a computer involves the input of data and instructions, the processing of that data and instructions, and the output of the results of that processing. This basic process is used in a wide variety of applications, from simple personal computing tasks to complex scientific simulations and data analysis.

How does a Computer actually start working?

When you turn on a computer, it goes through a startup process that initializes its hardware and software components, preparing the system for use. Here is a general synopsis of how a computer initiates working:

  • Power On: When you turn on a computer, it receives a signal to start up from the power supply unit, which supplies electricity to all the components of the computer.
  • Basic Input/Output System (BIOS): The computer’s firmware, known as the BIOS or UEFI, runs a series of diagnostic tests to assure that all the hardware components are working properly. If there are any issues, such as missing components or failed tests, the BIOS will usually display an error message on the screen.
  • Boot Loader: Once the hardware has been reviewed, the BIOS loads the boot loader, which is the software responsible for loading the operating system. The boot loader is typically stored on the hard drive or solid-state drive and is loaded into memory.
  • Operating System: Once the bootloader is loaded, it loads the operating system into memory. The operating system is the software that manages the computer’s hardware and software resources, and it provides a user interface that allows you to interact with the computer.
  • User Login: Once the operating system has loaded, the computer will prompt you to log in. After logging in, you will have access to the computer’s desktop and the software applications installed on the system.

Once the startup process is complete, the computer is ready for use. Now, we can then launch software applications, browse the internet, create documents, and perform any other tasks we need to do on the computer.


A computer takes input from the user, processes it according to instructions, and displays the result to the user through its output device.

The computer is used to store a large amount of data or to store data at high speed. The main task of a computer is to accept and process instructions from the user and provide them with results or outputs according to their instructions.

In conclusion, the workings of a computer involve a complicated interplay between various components, each of which plays an essential role in helping the computer to carry out its multiple functions. 

Through the article, you have learned about the computer’s working. We hope that you have liked the post and it has been beneficial for you. To express your love towards the post, must share it.

Leave a Comment