what is dbms

DBMS – Definition, Types, and Advantages

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There is no doubt that in today’s organizations, a giant amount of data is being created every day. Moreover, this data is getting complex each coming day. Thus maintaining such data has become a problem. The only solution to this is to adopt a system that manages the data with very little human intervention.

Such a system that manages large data with minimal use of commands is a DBMS or Database Management System. In this article, we will answer the question – What is DBMS? And see how it is different from a file system.

Before starting with the topic let us first understand what is a database.

What is a Database?

Keeping a collection of information or data in an organized manner is a database. This database is generally stored and accessed from a computer system. To control this data requires a DBMS. Together these are called database systems and require languages like SQL to maintain them.

What is DBMS?

Database Management System or DBMS is software that stores, maintains, manipulates, and retrieves data in a database. It is basically an interface between the database and the end-user.

Types of DBMS

1. Hierarchical Database

Data stored in the form of the parent-child relationship is called a hierarchical database. The structure looks like a tree, with a parent node at the top and child nodes at the bottom branching out.

2. Centralized Database

Data stored at the centralized database system where is a centralized database. This eases the work for the end-user. This is because instead of accessing data from various locations, it can access data from one place of all the locations. An example of it would be a centralized library. This will store the database of all the libraries present in that university or institution.

3. Distributed Database

The opposite of centralized data is the distributed data. As the name suggests the data is spread across various database systems. The data across these systems are connected via communication links, to make data access easier.

A distributed database is further divided into a homogeneous database and a heterogeneous database. Examples, Ignite, Hbase, etc.

4. Relational Database

Data stored in the form tables(relations), consisting tuples(rows) and attributes(columns) is a relational database. This database has a fixed structure and is operated and manipulated through SQL. It is one of the most used types because of its simplicity.

5. Object-Oriented Database

The data stored in the form of objects is called an object-oriented database. This data is inside a defined structure called class. This is similar to object-oriented programming language.

6. NoSQL

The not-only SQL or No-SQL is a type of database system that stores large data in various ways other than just tabular form. It has been designed keeping in view an increase of modern applications. The No-SQL has further 4 types- document-oriented databases, Key-value storage, Graph database, and Wide-column stores.

7. Cloud Database

Data stored in a virtual environment, and operated through a cloud-based management system is a cloud database. The users can access cloud-based services like SaaS, PaaS, CaaS, and IaaS to use the data. Some of the cloud computing platforms are- Amazon Web Services(AWS) and Microsoft Azure.

8. Network Database

The database based on the design and working of a network data model is a network database. It may look like a hierarchical database but instead, it can have multiple children and parent nodes.

9. Personal Database

Database for a single-user where data is stored in the user’s PC is a Personal database. These are quite simple to use and acquire very little space.

10. Operational Database

To create and update data daily requires an operational database. To handle data in an organization where the flow of data has to be maintained in real-time requires this type of database.

Advantages of DBMS

Today, almost all organizations are working on a computerized database. These databases require constant updates. This where the use of a DBMS is important. Let us look at some of the ways DBMS has proved helpful in real scenarios.

  1. Reduces data redundancy
    Sometimes storing data on multiple database systems leads to the duplicity of data. So, DBMS prevents it from happening.

  2. Data Integrity
    This means data is accurate and remains consistent for all the users accessing it.

  3. Backup and Recovery
    The data once entered into a system gets backed up automatically. There is no manual requirement for constant updates.

  4. Accessibility
    One can constraint access to any database. It also sets accessibility to one person at a time to the same data.

  5. Data security
    It is a more secure platform to store any sensitive data, like the ones used in banks.

  6. Faster data access
    The data can be accessed easily and faster. This is because data is kept in an organized manner.

Difference between DBMS and File System

The file system is a way to store data in files, that allow access of one user at a time. Also, these files have no relation between them. There are various reasons why a DBMS is a better method to store data.

  1. The file system has a high chance of data redundancy.

  2. There are no constant updates or notifications shown. Therefore, changes made by one user might not be visible to another user.

  3. There are no chances of data recovery if the file system crashes accidentally.

  4. The data is not as secure as in a DBMS. This is because the file system has a password mechanism to protect files. But this method is not robust enough to keep data secure.


As the operation of a large amount of data is increasing each day, so adopting a DBMS to manage your data is a smart move. Moreover, constant creation, update, and deletion of data will prove tiresome at some point.

However, with the help of DBMS one can escape from such monotonous activities. Besides, one can see all the changes in the data at one go. In a nutshell, it won’t be long that there would be AI-based database systems.

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