Selenium Interview Questions - part4

Ques.76. What is a data driven framework?

Ans. A data driven framework is one in which the test data is put in external files like csv, excel etc separated from test logic written in test script files. The test data drives the test cases, i.e. the test methods run for each set of test data values. TestNG provides inherent support for data driven testing using @dataProvider annotation.

Ques.77. What is a keyword driven framework?

Ans. A keyword driven framework is one in which the actions are associated with keywords and kept in external files e.g. an action of launching a browser will be associated with keyword - launchBrowser(), action to write in a textbox with keyword - writeInTextBox(webElement, textToWrite) etc. The code to perform the action based on a keyword specified in external file is implemented in the framework itself.
In this way the test steps can be written in a file by even a person of non-programming background once all the identified actions are implemented.

Ques.78. What is a hybrid framework?

Ans. A hybrid framework is a combination of one or more frameworks. Normally it is associated with combination of data driven and keyword driven frameworks where both the test data and test actions are kept in external files(in the form of table).

Ques.79. What is selenium Grid?

Ans. Selenium grid is a tool that helps in distributed running of test scripts across different machines having different browsers, browser version, platforms etc in parallel. In selenium grid there is hub that is a central server managing all the distributed machines known as nodes.

Ques.80. What are some advantages of selenium grid?

Ans. The advantages of selenium grid are-

  1. It allows running test cases in parallel thereby saving test execution time.
  2. Multi browser testing is possible using selenium grid by running the test on machines having different browsers.
  3. It allows multi-platform testing by configuring nodes having different operating systems.

Ques.81. What is a hub in selenium grid?

Ans. A hub is server or a central point in selenium grid that controls the test executions on the different machines.

Ques.82. What is a node in selenium grid?

Ans. Nodes are the machines which are attached to the selenium grid hub and have selenium instances running the test scripts. Unlike hub there can be multiple nodes in selenium grid.

Ques.83. Explain the line of code Webdriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();.

Ans. In the line of code Webdriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); 'WebDriver' is an interface and we are creating an object of type WebDriver instantiating an object of FirefoxDriver class.

Ques.84 What is the purpose of creating a reference variable- 'driver' of type WebDriver instead of directly creating a FireFoxDriver object or any other driver's reference in the statement Webdriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();?

Ans. By creating a reference variable of type WebDriver we can use the same variable to work with multiple browsers like ChromeDriver, IEDriver etc.

Ques.85. What is testNG?

Ans. TestNG(NG for Next Generation) is a testing framework that can be integrated with selenium or any other automation tool to provide multiple capabilities like assertions, reporting, parallel test execution etc.

Ques.86. What are some advantages of testNG?

Ans. Following are the advantages of testNG-

  1. TestNG provides different assertions that helps in checking the expected and actual results.
  2. It provides parallel execution of test methods.
  3. We can define dependency of one test method over other in TestNG.
  4. We can assign priority to test methods in selenium.
  5. It allows grouping of test methods into test groups.
  6. It allows data driven testing using @DataProvider annotation.
  7. It has inherent support for reporting.
  8. It has support for parameterizing test cases using @Parameters annotation.

Ques.87. What is the use of testng.xml file?

Ans. testng.xml file is used for configuring the whole test suite. In testng.xml file we can create test suite, create test groups, mark tests for parallel execution, add listeners and pass parameters to test scripts. Later this testng.xml file can be used for triggering the test suite.

Ques.88. How can we pass parameter to test script using testNG?

Ans. Using @Parameter annotation and 'parameter' tag in testng.xml we can pass parameters to the test script.
Sample testng.xml -

<suite name="sampleTestSuite">
   <test name="sampleTest">   
      <parameter name="sampleParamName" value="sampleParamValue"/>
         <class name="TestFile" />

Sample test script-

public class TestFile {
   public void parameterTest(String paramValue) {
      System.out.println("Value of sampleParamName is - " + sampleParamName);

Ques.89. How can we create data driven framework using testNG?

Ans. Using @DataProvider we can create a data driven framework in which data is passed to the associated test method and multiple iteration of the test runs for the different test data values passed from the @DataProvider method. The method annotated with @DataProvider annotation return a 2D array of object.

//Data provider returning 2D array of 3*2 matrix
 @DataProvider(name = "dataProvider1")
   public Object[][] dataProviderMethod1() {
      return new Object[][] {{"kuldeep","rana"}, {"k1","r1"},{"k2","r2"}};

   //This method is bound to the above data provider returning 2D array of 3*2 matrix
   //The test case will run 3 times with different set of values
   @Test(dataProvider = "dataProvider1")
   public void sampleTest(String s1, String s2) {
      System.out.println(s1 + " " + s2);

Ques.90. What is the use of @Listener annotation in TestNG?

Ans. TestNG provides us different kind of listeners using which we can perform some action in case an event has triggered. Usually testNG listeners are used for configuring reports and logging. One of the most widely used lisetner in testNG is ITestListener interface. It has methods like onTestSuccess, onTestFailure, onTestSkipped etc. We need to implement this interface creating a listener class of our own. After that using the @Listener annotation, we can use specify that for a particular test class, our customized listener class should be used.


public class TestClass {				
    WebDriver driver= new FirefoxDriver();
    public void testMethod(){
    //test logic

Ques.91. What is the use of @Factory annotation in TestNG?

Ans. @Factory annotation helps in dynamic execution of test cases. Using @Factory annotation we can pass parameters to the whole test class at run time. The parameters passed can be used by one or more test methods of that class.
Example - there are two classes TestClass and the TestFactory class. Because of the @Factory annotation the test methods in class TestClass will run twice with the data "k1" and "k2"

public class TestClass{
    private String str;
    public TestClass(String str) {
        this.str = str;
    public void TestMethod() {
public class TestFactory{
    //The test methods in class TestClass will run twice with data "k1" and "k2"
    public Object[] factoryMethod() {
        return new Object[] { new TestClass("K1"), new TestClass("k2") };

Ques.92. What is difference between @Factory and @DataProvider annotation?

Ans. @Factory method creates instances of test class and run all the test methods in that class with different set of data.
Whereas, @DataProvider is bound to individual test methods and run the specific methods multiple times.

Ques.93. How can we make one test method dependent on other using TestNG?

Ans. Using dependsOnMethods parameter inside @Test annotation in testNG we can make one test method run only after successful execution of dependent test method.

 @Test(dependsOnMethods = { "preTests" })

Ques.94. How can we set priority of test cases in TestNG?

Ans. Using priority parameter in @Test annotation in TestNG we can define priority of test cases. The default priority of test when not specified is integer value 0. Example-


Ques.95. What are commonly used TestNG annotations?

Ans. The commonly used TestNG annotations are-

  • @Test- @Test annotation marks a method as Test method.
  • @BeforeSuite- The annotated method will run only once before all tests in this suite have run.
  • @AfterSuite-The annotated method will run only once after all tests in this suite have run.
  • @BeforeClass-The annotated method will run only once before the first test method in the current class is invoked.
  • @AfterClass-The annotated method will run only once after all the test methods in the current class have been run.
  • @BeforeTest-The annotated method will run before any test method belonging to the classes inside the <test> tag is run.
  • @AfterTest-The annotated method will run after all the test methods belonging to the classes inside the <test> tag have run.

Ques.96. What are some common assertions provided by testNG?

Ans. Some of the common assertions provided by testNG are-

  1. assertEquals(String actual, String expected, String message) - (and other overloaded data type in parameters)
  2. assertNotEquals(double data1, double data2, String message) - (and other overloaded data type in parameters)
  3. assertFalse(boolean condition, String message)
  4. assertTrue(boolean condition, String message)
  5. assertNotNull(Object object)
  6. fail(boolean condition, String message)
  7. true(String message)

Ques.97. How can we run test cases in parallel using TestNG?

Ans. In order to run the tests in parallel just add these two key value pairs in suite-

  • parallel="{methods/tests/classes}"
  • thread-count="{number of thread you want to run simultaneously}".
<suite name="ArtOfTestingTestSuite" parallel="methods" thread-count="5">

Check Running Selenium Tests in parallel for details.

Ques.98. Name an API used for reading and writing data to excel files.

Ans. Apache POI API and JXL(Java Excel API) can be used for reading, writing and updating excel files.

Ques.99. Name an API used for logging in Java.

Ans. Log4j is an open source API widely used for logging in Java. It supports multiple levels of logging like - ALL, DEBUG, INFO, WARN, ERROR, TRACE and FATAL.

Ques.100. What is the use of logging in automation?

Ans. Logging helps in debugging the tests when required and also provides a storage of test's runtime behaviour.